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    Discrimination may also groups. Where minority and indigenous women be indirect, where an apparently neutral provision have been marginalized, implementation of special has a disproportionately negative impact on measures is likely to be necessary in order to enable minority or indigenous women. An example of this them to enjoy their rights on an equal footing with is where restrictions on the type of clothing that others in society. Prohibitions must be The issue of the rights of minorities and indigenous based on reasonable and objective grounds.

    State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2011

    States peoples to maintain and develop their identity and may not use the existence of a harmful cultural cultural practices, versus the individual rights of practice as a reason for prohibiting a range of cultural members of those groups to be free from harmful actions or a whole culture. Restrictions must relate cultural practices, is often highlighted as a problem only to the specific harmful practice. States must for the concept of human rights. In many cultures also not act in a discriminatory manner either, for - indigenous, minority and majority - women Nycfreesexchat focusing on eradication of early marriage have primary responsibility for raising children, in a minority community but ignoring the same including teaching them about the culture.

    In effect practice in a majority community. For governments they become the custodians of cultural traditions that are keen to meet their legal obligations to uphold and are viewed as such by other members of their both the rights of women and those of minorities, communities. For example men may no longer wear getting this balance right can be a difficult task. In a traditional clothes every day, whereas women may case study included in the Southern Africa update, do so. This means that tensions associated with this is discussed in the context of the South African cultural practices are more likely to affect women government's approach to certain Zulu cultural and girls.

    This can be the case if restrictions and practices that are harmful to women. But it can also be the case when women harmful practice; however, it is not sufficient to from within a particular group question what they ensure the practice is ended, especially if sections see as an obligation to follow certain practices of the community are against the measures. The most States have an obligation under human rights effective methods for the eradication of harmful standards to protect women and girls from cultural practices require cooperation from the affected practices which violate their rights, whether they are community.

    Cooperation is more likely when carried out by a majority or minority. It is important measures to be taken to eradicate the harmful to remember that harmful cultural practices are not practice are seen to be non-threatening to the only found in minority or indigenous communities. Minority The main minority rights standard, the UNDM, or indigenous communities that have experienced provides guidance on how this can be balanced systematic discrimination or marginalization may with the right of minorities to cultural identity. They may Against Torture for example early marriage or female be accused of aiding the destruction of their genital mutilation [FGM]. Arguments used are often that the rights of Practical barriers may also present themselves, the community need to be prioritized and secured such as lack of access to funding to support their first; once that has been achieved, other areas, such campaigns and, as with majority women, difficulties as women's rights can be addressed.

    The implication of balancing the demands of their office with child of this argument is that women's rights are less care and domestic work may hinder them seldom a important and can be left until later. However, the consideration for male elected officials. In the face opposite argument also holds: Few quotas Free erotic dating directly to minority or indigenous It is important that such support allows community women's participation. They may have been selected to fill the quota without Participation understanding what the position means or to be a proxy for a male from their community or the In many countries, minority and indigenous women majority.

    They Xxx seniorenchat face discrimination from other are under-represented in state decision-making elected officials who do not allow them to fulfil processes at both national and local levels. In the Indian Older swm seeking younger for fun in pol-e khomri as mentioned their political rights, such as their right to vote. They may also be which can help to perpetuate gender-based pressurized into supporting the candidate chosen discrimination against them for instance in regard by their family or others in the community.

    Those to community-level decisions relating to land rights minority or indigenous women who would like or inheritance. This also means that they are to take part in such processes, or stand for elected seldom called upon to represent the community office, may face criticism from within their own to outsiders. Where they do stand for a whole. Even where there are calls to increase the election they may face prejudice from the electorate participation of women, for example in conflict regarding their ability as women to Mexicansex chat resolution and peace-building, minority and leadership positions, compounded by negative bias 18 Why focus on minority State of Dating delilah survivors World's Minorities and indigenous women?

    However, it is important to ensure that the diverse viewpoints of those belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples are heard. Minorities - including minority women - have the right to participation in decisions affecting the minority, in all aspects of public life, as well as in economic progress and development. For each of these areas, governments need to ensure that the participation of minority women is effective rather than tokenistic, and that they have a meaningful opportunity to influence the outcome of the decision or process. Government efforts to increase participation of women also need to include minority women.

    This includes the right to autonomy or self-government in their internal and local affairs, and the right to maintain their own institutions Fuck local sluts in blackrod well as to choose to participate fully in the life of the state. International standards impose obligations on states to ensure the rights of women, including indigenous women, to participate in political and public life. This includes the obligation to ensure that indigenous women can participate equally with men in indigenous-run institutions. The following thematic chapters - on the MDGs, gender-based violence, reproductive health, and armed conflict - explore some of these issues and tensions in more depth.

    They are also discussed in the regional and country updates, all of which include coverage of events from and information significant to minority and indigenous women, where available. But as many of the authors of our updates this year have found, it is often difficult to obtain accurate, up-to-date information about the status of minority and indigenous women in a given country. In addition, in accounts of humanitarian disasters and wide-scale human rights violations, the specific experiences of minority and indigenous women are often invisible. State of the World's Minorities Why focus on minority 19 and Indigenous Peoples and indigenous women? She has that minority and indigenous women and girls struggled for decades alongside other have to benefit from the Millennium Development Roma across Europe to secure dignity and equality.

    Although development actors But she has carried more weight on her shoulders will sometimes acknowledge such challenges exist, than her male counterparts. We misguided, and will present some suggestions for also have to raise awareness about our problems and urgently needed reform, to ensure the full realization needs with different government bodies so that these are of the MDGs for minority and indigenous women taken into account. In addition, we have to continue and girls. They are a general, Romani organizations and sometimes even our set of commitments by states to address pressing own families. There are eight goals, 21 targets and 60 indicators.

    Her words, recorded in a report by the Although many of the issues included in the European Roma Rights Centre, are echoed by MDGs are relevant in both Northern and Southern minority and indigenous women activists across states, broadly speaking, Southern state actors the continents, and show clearly that women are implementing domestic MDGs plans, while and girls from minority and indigenous groups Northern states are prioritizing the MDGs in face challenges on several fronts. Discrimination, their overseas development assistance, but not domestic expectations and cultural or religious domestically. All states are invited to submit regular constraints are among the major factors that have reports on progress towards realizing the goals.

    Most prominent is The Millennium Goal 3, to promote gender equality and empower Development Goals women, followed by Goal 5, to improve maternal health. The true measure of the MDGs, however, Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger is in the concrete targets that states have set, and Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education the indicators used to assess progress. In examining Goal 3: Promote gender equality and the targets within each goal, there is evidence of a gender-aware approach, but also of limited empower women aspirations. For example, Goal 3 has far-reaching Goal 4: Reduce child mortality intentions, but only one target is set specifically to Goal 5: Improve maternal health eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary Goal 6: The indicators for Goal 3 include measuring other diseases the proportion of seats held by women in national Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability parliaments, and yet no commitment was agreed Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for to make this an official target for achieving gender equality.

    Moreover, of the 60 indicators, only 4 development explicitly call for collection of disaggregated data by sex: These various aspects of discrimination evidenced in the MDG reports. From the perspective of women's human rights, the MDGs fall far short. Key issues like violence Overcoming poverty against women, lack of equal political participation and non-discrimination in access to land, financial Goal 1 is to eradicate extreme poverty. Although it services and inheritance rights are among the many is increasingly common to find gender-disaggregated human rights obligations of states that do not get poverty figures, further disaggregation by minority full or even partial attention.

    Goal 5 on maternal or indigenous identity is less visible. Poverty surveys mortality is reportedly the MDG where global consistently show disproportionately higher levels progress has been slowest. Global crises in the of poverty for minority groups but women can financial sector and affecting the environment have experience further disparities. One dataset used in increased women's hardship: The disproportionately shows that indigenous or Afro-descendant women low number of women in political and financial consistently earned less than their male counterparts decision-making positions has given them less power and considerably less than non-indigenous, non- to oppose these harsh realities and inequalities.

    Their identity as minorities or indigenous peoples and as minority or indigenous High rates of poverty among minority groups women, however, creates a number of particular are influenced greatly by the precarious nature of barriers to equality that need to be addressed, minority and indigenous women's employment including within MDGs programmes. They commonly rely on the basis of their low economic status. A study by the various identity groups to which they belong. Minority and indigenous jobs that provided no benefits or formal work women also face gender discrimination from agreements'. In Guatemala, the World Bank members of their own cultural or religious reports that the proportion of indigenous and communities.

    Discrimination can also manifest Afro-descendant women in non-agricultural wage itself in different spheres of activity for minority labour is only one-fifth of that recorded for women and indigenous women: In Peru, only 4 per cent not face discrimination in the home but may at the 22 Minority and indigenous State of the World's Minorities women and the Millennium and Indigenous Peoples Development Goals 24 of indigenous female workers have social security been allocated only to men, suggesting that shifting coverage compared to 10 per cent of indigenous patterns to more female-headed families justified male workers, 19 per cent of non-indigenous female women's claims to these rights.

    The results varied, workers and 26 per cent of non-indigenous male with some communities recognizing such rights workers, as reported by Duryea and Genoni. Two of the MDG lower levels of schooling, higher rates of fertility targets are focused on gender parity in access to and are more likely to lack access to electricity or education Goal 2, target 2 and Goal 3, target 3. A study have less access to education and experience more on pastoralist women in Tanzania indicates that marginalization and even abuse at school. This the most readily available data disaggregated by entails more work and responsibility, but rarely gender and minority or indigenous status.

    Tibetan group [of minorities] are much less likely to be in school than those from the Lao-Tai group'. Unequal access to land and inheritance rights Similarly, the MDG Report for Iran shows that severely limits the economic independence of in three regions where marginalized minorities women, making them more vulnerable to economic predominate - the provinces of Kurdestan, or social shocks. In many communities, customary Khuzestan and Sistan Baluchestan - the ratio law has governed the allocation of such resources, of girls to boys in education lags behind other to the detriment of women.

    Irene Naguda, a regions. By the yeareconomically discriminated [against] within their Han girls had increased secondary enrolment community due to cultural domains of power by 46 per cent since and 82 per cent since limiting them from inheriting resources and assets the MDG base ratewhereas minority girls despite national legislation enforcing equitable had achieved improvements of only 29 per cent inheritance of property'. Men within communities since and 54 per cent since Some express understandable fears that granting Even where girls are overcoming In response, women advocate for a community- gender barriers, discrimination on the basis of based solution and legislation to protect traditional their minority identity can hold them back: Discrimination fully authorized to deal with the context specific in the classroom is a common problem, manifest in education situation'.

    Minority girl and boy children can experience harassment, teasing and insults from pupils Improving health and reproductive health care and teachers. Teachers can have lower expectations of minority or indigenous girls, offering them less The MDGs give particular attention to the field attention and fewer incentives to succeed. Curricula of health care, with a focus on reduction of rates in general often do not mention minorities or do so of HIV, AIDS and other diseases Goal 6 and on in negative or stereotypical ways and positive images maternal mortality Goal 5. Cultural practices, of minority or indigenous women will likely be even geographic location and discrimination can lead to less visible.

    Overt discrimination can dissuade parents differential levels of health and maternal mortality from enrolling children or cause children to drop out. For example, Access to mother-tongue education is also lacking in research on pastoralist communities in Tanzania many countries, making it difficult for minority and points to increasing rates of HIV infection, indigenous children to integrate and stay enrolled particularly among adult women, estimated for in primary school. This may be particularly difficult pastoralists at per cent as compared to for girls who, because of domestic obligations and a national average of 8. Among the cultural norms, will have less contact outside the contributing causes are polygymy and strong community before starting school than boys, and thus cultural resistance to condom use.

    The government less exposure to the majority language s. Minority has failed to respond with targeted policies: For instance, Dalit girls at one school in India were particularly targeted The topic of reproductive health is given specific for repeated rape by teachers. In this case, the case attention elsewhere in State of the World's Minorities was heard and won in favour of the girls. Given the poor employment prospects the factors that increase maternal mortality among for minority and indigenous women in many minority and indigenous women. In Guatemala, countries, this expense means that the girl child's maternal mortality for indigenous women is three education may not be prioritized when family times higher than for non-indigenous women, and income is limited, pushing girls into informal while 68 per cent of non-indigenous women have economy jobs before they can complete their had professional prenatal care, only There may be religious or cultural indigenous women report similar.

    In India, figures preferences of minority groups that impede equal for show that only one-third of women from access to education for girls: The disparity for girl children to work and be educated in the between these figures can be the result of inadequate home according to cultural or religious traditions. The use of rape as a form of ethnic minority and indigenous women. According to the cleansing or humiliation of male combatants makes MDG Report for Nepal, among Dalits in Nepal, minority women extremely vulnerable to such acts.

    In communities can mean that women are ostracized or China, research by Emily Hannum for the World dissuaded from reporting these crimes. Two things Fatima' in Chechnya, where Muslim women wearing are important here: There have been reports location is not the only explanatory variable of of rape and other sexual violence during searches inequality. Bahrami's execution is the latest in a slew of hangings carried out by the Islamic republic in January. Her execution takes the total number of people hanged in Iran so far this year to 66, according to media reports. Bahrami, a year-old Iranian-born naturalised Dutch citizen, was reportedly arrested in December after joining a protest against the government while visiting relatives in the Islamic republic.

    The prosecutor's office confirmed on Saturday that she had been arrested for "security crimes. Iranian Ambassador Gharib Abadi was informed of the sanctions after he confirmed reports that Zahra Bahrami, 45, was executed in Tehran Saturday. His embassy later said the hanging was "an internal issue" that should have no impact on diplomatic relations. On the other hand, the ever insightful Prof. Barry Rubin is not optimistic. He's talking law and order. Reports are that the Egyptian Army, or at least some elements have sided with the civilian protesters.

    They allowed them to paint the tanks. While some protesters clashed with police, army tanks expected to disperse the crowds in central Cairo and in the northern city of Alexandria instead became rest points and even, on occasion, part of the protests as anti-Mubarak graffiti were scrawled on them without interference from soldiers. Egyptian men all serve in the army, giving it a very different relationship to the people from that of the police. The feared security police had largely withdrawn from central Cairo to take up positions around the presidential palace, with their places taken up by the army.

    But there was no sign of letup in the tumult. Reports from morgues and hospitals suggested that at least 50 people had been killed so far. In Ramses Square in central Cairo Saturday midday, protesters commandeered a flatbed army truck.

    One protester was driving the truck around the square while a dozen others on the back were chanting for President Mubarak to leave office. Nearby, soldiers relaxed around their ror and armored vehicles and chatted with protesters. There were no policemen in sight. In another sign that the army was showing sympathy for the demonstrations, in a different central Cairo square on Saturday a soldier in camouflage addressed a crowd through a bullhorn declaring that the army would stand with the people. The only question now is if calm can be restored quickly to minimize the disruption, and transition, in other words, which general is next.


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